Uto-aztekiske språk

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Utbreiing av dei nordlege aztekiske språka i dag
Utbreiinga av dei sørlege uto-utbreiinga til dei uto-aztekiske språka i dag

Uto-aztekiske språk er ein amerikansk indiansk språkfamilie. Han er ein av dei største (både i geografisk utbreiing og mengd språk) språkfamiliane i Amerika. Språk i denne familien finn ein frå Great Basin i det vestlege USA (Oregon, Idaho, Utah, California, Nevada, Arizona) og ned til Mexico. Delstaten Utah har fått namnet sitt frå det uto-aztekiske ute-folket. Klassisk nahuatl, som var aztekarane sitt språk, og moderne nahuatl høyrer til språkfamilen.

Klassifisering[endre | endre wikiteksten]

Dei uto-aztekiske språka vert vanlegvis delt inn i to hovudgrupper: nordlege og sørlege. Denne inndelinga er ikkje akseptert av alle lingvistar; nokon reknar anten frå sju til ni hovudgrupper, medan andre deler inn den nordlege gruppa i fire uavhengige grupper, noko som saman med den sørlege gjev fem hovudgrupper.

I tillegg til språka på lista, er det fleire titals utdøydde uto-aztekiske språk med liten eller ingen dokumentasjon.[1]

Nordleg uto-aztekisk[endre | endre wikiteksten]

Sørleg uto-aztekisk[endre | endre wikiteksten]

= utdøydd

Referansar[endre | endre wikiteksten]

  1. Campbell 1997
  2. Benjamin Lee Whorf. 1946. "The Hopi Language, Toreva Dialect," Linguistic Structures of Native America. Ed. Cornelius Osgood. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology 6. New York: Wenner-Gren Foundation. Pages 158-183.
    LaVerne Masayesva Jeanne. 1978. "Aspects of Hopi grammar," Massachusetts Institute of Technology PhD dissertation.
    Hopi Dictionary Project. 1998. Hopi Dictionary: Hopìikwa Lavàytutuveni: A Hopi-English Dictionary of the Third Mesa Dialect With an English-Hopi Finder List and a Sketch of Hopi Grammar. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
  3. C.F. Voegelin. 1935. Tübatulabal Grammar. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 34/2. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    C.F. Voegelin. 1958. "Working Dictionary of Tubatulabal," International Journal of American Linguistics 24:221-228.
  4. David Iannucci. 1972. "Numic historical phonology," Cornell University PhD dissertation.
    Michael Nichols. 1973. "Northern Paiute historical grammar," University of California, Berkeley PhD dissertation
    Wick R. Miller. 1986. "Numic Languages," Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 11, Great Basin. Ed. by Warren L. d’Azevedo. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Pages 98-106.
  5. Lila Wistrand Robinson & James Armagost. 1990. Comanche Dictionary and Grammar. Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics Publication 92. Dallas, Texas: The Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.
    Jean O. Charney. 1993. A Grammar of Comanche. Studies in the Anthropology of North American Indians. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
  6. Jon P. Dayley. 1989. Tümpisa (Panamint) Shoshone Grammar. University of California Publications in Linguistics Volume 115. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
    Jon P. Dayley. 1989. Tümpisa (Panamint) Shoshone Dictionary. University of California Publications in Linguistics Volume 116. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
  7. John E. McLaughlin. 2006. Timbisha (Panamint). Languages of the World/Materials 453. Muenchen: LINCOM Europa.
  8. Richley H. Crapo. 1976. Big Smokey Valley Shoshoni. Desert Research Institute Publications in the Social Science sine 10. Reno: University of Nevada Press.
    Beverly Crum & Jon Dayley. 1993. Western Shoshoni Grammar. Boise State University Occasional Papers and Monographs in Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics Volume No. 1. Boise, Idaho: Department of Anthropology, Boise State University.
  9. Wick R. Millar. 1972. Newe Natekwinappeh: Shoshoni Stories and Dictionary. University of Utah Anthropological Papers 94. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
    Wick R. Millar. 1996. "Sketch of Shoshone, a Uto-Aztecan Language," Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 17, Languages. Ed. Ives Goddard. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. Pages 693-720.
  10. Drusilla Gould & Christopher Loether. 2002. An Introduction to the Shoshoni Language: Dammen Daigwape. Salt Lake City, Utah: The University of Utah Press.
  11. D.B. Shimkin. 1949. "Shoshone, I: Linguistic Sketch and Text," International Journal of American Linguistics 15:175-188.
    D. B. Shimkin. 1949. "Shoshone II: Morpheme List," International Journal of American Linguistics 15.203-212.
    Malinda Tidzump. 1970. Shoshone Thesaurus. Grand Forks, North Dakota.
  12. Maurice L. Zigmond, Curtis G. Booth, & Pamela Munro. 1991. Kawaiisu, A Grammar and Dictionary with Texts. Eid. Pamela Munro. University of California Publications in Linguistics Volume 119. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
  13. Margaret L. Press. 1979. Chemehuevi, A Grammar and Lexicon. University of California Publications in Linguistics Volume 92. Berkeley, California. University of California Press.
    Laird, Carobeth. 1976. The Chemehuevis. Malki Museum Press, Banning, California.
  14. Edward Sapir. 1930. Southern Paiute, a Shoshonean Language. Reprinted in 1992 in: The Collected Works of Edward Sapir, X, Southern Paiute and Ute Linguistics and Ethnography. Ed. William Bright. Berlin: Mouton deGruyter.
    Edward Sapir. 1931. Southern Paiute Dictionary. Reprinted in 1992 in: The Collected Works of Edward Sapir, X, Southern Paiute and Ute Linguistics and Ethnography. Ed. William Bright. Berlin: Mouton deGruyter.
    Pamela A. Bunte. 1979. "Problem sitt in Southern Paiute Syntax and Semantics," Indiana University Ph.D. dissertation.
  15. Talmy Givón. 1980. Ute Reference Grammar. 1st edition. Ignacio, Colorado: Ute Press.
    Jean O. Charney. 1996. A Dictionary of the Southern Ute Language. Ignacio, Colorado: Ute Press.
  16. Sidney M. Lamb. 1957. "Mono Grammar," University of California, Berkeley Ph.D. dissertation.
    Rosalie Bethel, Paul V. Kroskrity, Christopher Loether, & Gregory A. Reinhardt. 1993. A Dictionary of Western Mono. 2nd edition.
  17. Evan J. Norris. 1986. "A Grammar Sketch and Comparative Study of Eastern Mono," University of California, San Diego Ph.D. dissertation.
  18. Anonymous. 1987. Yerington Paiute Grammar. Anchorage, Alaska: Bilingual Education Service sin.
    Arie Poldevaart. 1987. Paiute-English English-Paiute Dictionary. Yerington, Nevada: Yerington Paiute Tribe.
  19. Allen Snapp, John Anderson, & Joy Anderson. 1982. "Northern Paiute," Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar, Volume 3, Uto-Aztecan Grammatical Sketches. Ed. Ronald W. Langacker. Summar Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics Publication Number 57, Volume III. Dallas, Texas: Summar Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington. Pages 1-92.
  20. Timothy John Thornes. 2003. "A Northern Paiute Grammar with Texts," University of Oregon Ph.D. dissertation.
  21. Sven Liljeblad. 1966-1967. "Northern Paiute Lessons," manuscript.
    Sven Liljeblad. 1950. "Bannack I: Phonemes," International Journal of American Linguistics 16:126-131
  22. Kenneth C. Hill. 1967. "A Grammar of the Serrano Language," University of California, Los Angeles PhD dissertation.
  23. Alice J. Anderton. 1988. "The Language of the Kitanemuks of California," University of California, Los Angeles PhD dissertation.
  24. Hansjakob Seglar. 1977. Cahuilla Grammar. Banning, California: Malki Museum Press.
    Hansjakob Seglar and Kojiro Hioki. 1979. Cahuilla Dictionary. Banning, California: Malki Museum Press.
  25. Jane H. Hill & Rosinda Nolasquez. 1973. Mulu'wetam, the First People: Cupeno Oral History and Language. Banning, California: Malki Museum Press.
    Jane H. Hill. 2005. A Grammar of Cupeño. University of California Publications in Linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  26. Dei fleste reknar Juaneño (no utdøytt) som ein dialekt av Luiseño, men Mithun (1999:539) rekna det som eit eige språk.
    Alfred L. Kroeber & George William Grace. 1960. The Sparkman Grammar of Luiseño. University of California Publications in Linguistics 16. Berkeley: The University of California Press.
    William Bright. 1968. A Luiseno Dictionary. University of California Publications in Linguistics 51. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Villiana Hyde. 1971. An Introduction to the Luiseño Language. Banning, California: Malki Museum Press.
    Eric Bryant Elliott. 1999. "Dictionary of Rincon Luiseno," University of California, San Diego PhD dissertation.
  27. Ofelia Zepeda. 1983 . A Tohono O'odham Grammar. Tucson, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press.
    Dean Saxton, Lucile Saxton, & Susie Enos. 1998. Dictionary: Tohono O'Odham/Pima to English, English to Tohono O'Odham/Pima. 2nd edition. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press.
  28. Roberto Escalante H. & Zarina Estrada Fernandez. 1993. Textos y gramatica del pima bajo. Sonora: Departamento dei Letra y Linguistica, Universidad de Mexico.
  29. Burton W. Bascom. 1982. "Northern Tepehuan," Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar, Volume 3, Uto-Aztecan Grammatical Sketches. Ed. by Ronald W. Langacker. Dallas: Summar Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington. Pages 267-393.
  30. T. Willett. 1991. A reference grammar of southeastern Tepehuan. Dallas: Summar Institute of Linguistics and University of Texas at Arlington.
  31. J. Alden Mason. 1916. "Tepecano, A Piman language of western Mexico," Annal sin of the New York Academy of Science 25:309-416.
  32. Donald H. Burgess. 1984. "Western Tarahumara," Studies in Uto-Aztecan grammar 4: Southern Uto-Aztecan grammatical sketches. Ed. Ronald W. Langacker. Summar Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics 56. Dallas: Summar Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington. Pages 1-149.
  33. Wick R. Millar. 1996. La lengua guarijio: gramatica, vocabulario y textos. Mexico City: Instituto dei Investigaciones Antropologicas, UNAM.
  34. Andrés Lionnet. 1978. El idioma tubar y lós tubares. Segun documentos ineditos dei C. S. Lumholtz y C. V. Hartman. Mexico, D. F: Universidad Iberoamericana.
  35. Andrés Lionnet. 1978. Elementos dei la lengua cahita (yaqui-mayo). México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  36. John M. Dedrick & Eugene H. Casad, eid. 1999. Yaqui Language Structures. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
    David L. Shaul. 1999. Yoeme-English English-Yoeme Standard Dictionary. New York: Hippocrene Books.
  37. Howard Collard & E. Collard. 1962. Vocabulario Mayo. Vocabularios Indígenas No. 6. México: ILV.
    Jeff Burnham. 1984. Una gramática dei la Lengua Mayo. Hermosillo, Sonora: Universidad dei Sonora.
  38. Natal Lombardo. 1702. Arte dei la Lengua Teguima vulgarmente llamada Opata. Mexico: Miguel dei Ribera.
  39. Andrés Lionnet. 1986. El eudeve, un idioma extinto dei Sonora (Study based on materials of J. Johnson, Loaysa, Bartlett, and Smith). Mexico: Instituto dei Investigaciones Antropologicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.
    David L. Shaul. 1991. "Eudeve morphosyntax: an overview," International Journal of American Linguistics 57:70-107.
  40. Eugene H. Casad. 1984. "Cora," Studies in Uto-Aztecan grammar 4: Southern Uto-Aztecan grammatical sketches. Ed. Ronald W. Langacker. Summar Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics 56. Dallas: Summar Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington. Pages 153-149.
  41. José Luis Iturrioz Leza y Julio Ramírez dei la Cruz, eit al. 2001. Gramática Didáctica del Huichol: Vol. I. Estructura Fonológica y Sistema dei Escritura. Departamento dei Estudios ein Lenguas Indígena sine-Universidad dei Guadalajara – Secretaria dei Educación Pública.
  42. Yolanda Lastra dei Suárez. 1986. Las áreas dialectales del náhuatl moderno. Mexico: Instituto dei Investigaciones Antropológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  43. Franz Boas. 1917. "El dialecto mexicano dei Pochutla, Oaxaca," International Journal of American Linguistics 1:9-44.
  44. Lyle Campbell. 1985. The Pipil language of El Salvador. Mouton grammar library No. 1. Berlin: Mouton Publishers.
  45. Fray Alonso dei Molina. 1555. Vocabulario ein Lengua Castellana y Mexicana y Mexicana y Castellana. Reprinted, Porrúa México, 1992.
    Horacio Carochi. 1645. Arte dei la lengua mexicana: con la declaración dei lós adverbios della. Reprinted, México D.F.: Porrúa, 1983.

Litteratur[endre | endre wikiteksten]

  • Campbell, Lyle. 1979. Middle American languages. In The Languages of Native America: Historical and Comparative Assessment, edited by Lyle Campbell and Marianne Mithun, pp. 902-1000. University of Texas Press, Austin.
  • Campbell, Lyle. 1997. American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford University Press.
  • Goddard, Ives. 1996. Introduction. In Languages, edited by Ives Goddard, pp. 1-16. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Vol. 17. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  • Goddard, Ives. 1999. "Native Languages and Language Families of North America." Wall Map. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Miller, Wick R. 1983. Uto-Aztecan languages. In Southwest, edited by Alfonso Ortiz, pp. 113-124. Handbook of North American Indians. William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Vol. 10. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.
  • Mithun, Marianne. 1999. The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Steele, Susan. 1979. Uto-Aztecan: An assessment for historical and comparative linguistics. In The Languages of Native America: Historical and Comparative Assessment, edited by Lyle Campbell and Marianne Mithun, pp. 444-544. University of Texas Press, Austin.
  • Súarez, Jorge. 1983. The Mesoamerican Indian Languages. Cambridge University Press.

Bakgrunnsstoff[endre | endre wikiteksten]

Kjelde[endre | endre wikiteksten]