Crowdy-crawn

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Crowdy-crawn
Klassifiseringmusikkinstrument
Hornbostel-Sachs klassifisering211.311
(Direkte slått membranofon)
Liknande instrument

Crowdy-crawn er ei rammetromme frå Vest-Cornwall laga av ein trering med eit trommeskinn av saueskinn. Den eldste omtalen av tromma er frå 1880.[1] Ho likner det irske instrumentet bodhrán.[2] Ho blir brukt av norske korniske folkemusikk-grupper som soloinstrumnet eller til akkompagnement.[3][4] Namnet «crowdy-crawn» kjem frå kornisk croder croghen, bokstaveleg 'skinn-såld,'[5][6][7] og er av og til avkorta til «crowd».[1][8]

Instrumentet skal ha kome frå ein jordbruksreiskap brukt til å sanka[1] og/eller måla[9] korn. På liknande vis skal den irske bodhránen ha kome frå eit drøftetrau brukt til å sikta ut større delar frå hausta korn: «mostbodhrán were made out of sieves and riddles, you know, for riddling corn, they just removed the wire, and used the frame.»[10] Denne typen instrument er også kjend som riddle drum i Dorsetshire og Wiltshire i England.[11]

Når ein ikkje brukte han på åkeren kunne ein crowdy-crawn brukast til å oppbevara ulike småsaker i heimen: «In old country house-keeping in West Cornwall, odd things, all worth saving, but for which no special place on the wall, shelf, chimney board, or dresser was provided, were tidied away into the 'crowdy-crawn'; a sieve-rind with a bottom of stretched sheep-skin, serving on occasion also as a tambourine for dancers, but originally meant as a corn-measure.»[9] Omgrepet er også brukt i moderne tid om ei samling av folk for kornisk kulturell forteljing, blondemaking, kvilting, spinning og andre tradisjonelle virke.[12]

Kjelder[endre | endre wikiteksten]

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 Margaret Ann Courtney; Thomas Quiller Couch (1880), Glossary of Words in Use in Cornwall, London: The English Dialect Society, Trübner & Co., henta 11. september 2011, Crowd, a wooden hoop covered with sheep-skin, used for taking up corn. Sometimes used as a tambourine, then called crowdy-crawn.  Den ukjende parameteren |side= vart ignorert (hjelp)
  2. Tony Upton (25. oktober 2006), =Tony's Celtic Music Pages, henta 11. september 2011 
  3. «Crowders», Cumpas Cornish Music Projects, 29. september 2006 
  4. Cornwall24 E-magazine http://www.cornwall24.net/, henta 11. september 2011  Missing or empty |title= (hjelp)
  5. Mervyn Davey. 1978. "Cornish Music" in Carn quarterly periodical in English and Celtic Languages published by the Celtic League, Issue No. 24, Winter 1978, p. 19 — accessible at http://www.celticleague.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/Carn%2024%20Winter%201978.pdf.
  6. June Skinner Sawyers. 2000. Celtic Music: A Complete Guide; From Ancient Roots to Modern Performers: The Music of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and Beyond. Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press, p. 17.
  7. Also reportedly "Kroeder Kroen" per Bob Hodgson: Bodhran, Australia National Folk Festival, http://education.folkfestival.org.au/modules/skinned-percussion/bodhran, 2011.
  8. William Bottrell: Stories and Folk-lore of West Cornwall, Third Series; Penzance: F. Rodda, 1880, p. 18: "...some of the merry company ... beat up the time on a "crowd" (sieve-rind with a sheepskin bottom, used for taking corn, flour, etc.)..."
  9. 9,0 9,1 Robert Morton Nance: Old Cornwall Journal, No.5 (April 1927)."
  10. Meabh O'Hare: Seamus O'Kane - Bodhrán - Ceird an cheoil, a documentary aired on July 23, 2008 on BBC Northern Ireland examining the place of the bodhran in Irish music over the last 50 years, following bodhrán maker Seamus O'Kane through the various stages of his work; this statement is in Part 1 of 5, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JIXuL4IU2Hk, accessed 16 Feb 2012.
  11. Mark Heiman, Loomis House Press: FTX-408 - Dorset is Beautiful, Village Traditions - Dorset, http://folktrax-archive.org/menus/cassprogs/408dorset.htm, April 2009; "Andrew had his own "Riddle Drum", a calfskin over a large farm sieve, which was used to accompany local melodeon players. It was beaten with a double-ended stick, then, particularly during step-dancing, it was vibrated by wetting the thumb and running it across the head of the drum. (15 years later the same type of drum started to be used by Irish players, and now, as "The Bodhran" it is mistakenly regarded as a uniquely Irish folk instrument!)"
  12. Pendarvis Historic Site Events Calendar, Wisconsin Historical Society:, henta 11. september 2011