Malcolm X

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Malcolm X i 1964.

Malcolm X (19. mai 192521. februar 1965)), var ein menneskerettsforkjempar i USA. Han var fødd Malcolm Little og tok etter ei pilegrimsreise til Mekka det muslimske namnet Al-Hajj Malik Al-Shabazz. Malcolm X var lenge talsmann for Nation of Islam, og grunnlegger av Muslim Mosque, Inc. og Organisasjon for afro-amerikansk eining. Han er den dag i dag eit symbol for den militante kampen til afroamerikanarar. Malcolm X blei skoten og drepen i Harlem i 1965.

Biografi[endre | endre wikiteksten]

Malcolm X blei fødd i Omaha i Nebraska, men han voks opp i Lansing, hovudstaden i Michigan. Han var den fjerde i ein søskenflokk på åtte, men faren hadde også tre barn frå eit tidlegare ekteskap. Mor hans, Louise, var fødd på øya Grenada i Britisk Vestindia som dotter av ei svart kvinne, som hadde blitt valdteken av ein kvit mann. Faren, Earl Little, stamma frå staten Georgia. Han var baptistprest men var også politisk aktiv. Han agiterte utrøtteleg for den mest oppsiktsvekkjande svarte rørsla i 1920-åra, UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association).

Da Malcolm slutta seg til dei svarte muslimane i Detroit, fekk han samtidig skifta ut etternamnet sitt, Little, med X. X symboliserte det sanne afrikanske familienamnet, som slavane hadde fått skifta ut av dei kvite slaveeigarane. På denne måten blei dette X eit symbol som knytte dei svarte muslimane saman. Etter kvart som rørsla voks, og det ved ein moské var fleire med same fornamnet, sette dei eit tal attåt X-en, såleis at f. eks. den tredje James kom til at heite James 3X. Elijah Muhammad bad Malcolm bere dette namnet til den dagen da Gud sjølv vende tilbake og gav han eit heilagt namn frå sin eigen munn.

Når han var på reise, kalla han seg Malik Shabazz. Han oppdaga at når han bruka dette namnet, trudde folk at han var afrikanar, og straks blei dei meir imøtekommande.

Malcolm X blei skoten og drepen i Harlem i New York 21. februar 1965.

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Litteratur[endre | endre wikiteksten]

Artiklar[endre | endre wikiteksten]

  • Parks, Gordon. The White Devil's Day is Almost Over. Life, May 31, 1963.
  • Speakman, Lynn. Who Killed Malcolm X? The Valley Advocate, November 26, 1992, pp. 3-6.
  • Vincent, Theodore. The Garveyite Parents of Malcolm X. The Black Scholar, vol. 20, #2, April, 1989.
  • Handler ,M.S.Malcolm X cites role in U.N. Fight. New York Times, Jan 2, 1965; pg. 6, 1.
  • Montgomery, Paul L. Malcolm X a Harlem Idol on Eve of Murder Trial. New York Times, Dec 6, 1965; pg. 46, 1
  • Bigart, Homer. Malcolm X-ism Feared by Rustin. New York Times, Mar 4, 1965; pg. 15, 1
  • Arnold, Martin. Harlem is Quiet as Crowds Watch Malcolm X Rites. New York Times, Feb 28, 1965; pg. 1, 2
  • Loomis, James. Death of Malcolm X. New York Times. Feb 27, 1965; pg. 24, 1
  • n/a. Malcolm X and Muslims. New York Times, Feb 21, 1965; pg. E10, 1
  • n/a. Malcolm X. New York Times, Feb 22, 1965; pg. 20, 1
  • n/a. Malcolm X Reports He Now Represents Muslim World Unit. New York Times, Oct 11, 1964; pg. 13, 1
  • Lelyveld, Joseph. Elijah Muhammad Rallies His Followers in Harlem. New York Times, Jun 29, 1964; pg. 1, 2
  • n/a. Malcolm X Woos 2 Rights Leaders. New York Times, May 19, 1964; pg. 28, 1
  • n/a. 1,000 In Harlem Cheer Malcolm X. New York Times, Mar 23, 1964; pg. 18, 1
  • Handler, M.S. Malcolm X Sees Rise in Violence. New York Times, Mar 13, 1964; pg. 20, 1
  • n/a. Malcolm X Disputes Nonviolence Policy. New York Times, Jun 5, 1963; pg. 29, 1
  • Apple, R.W. Malcolm X Silenced for Remarks On Assassination of Kennedy. New York Times, Dec 5, 1963; pg. 22, 1
  • Ronan, Thomas P. Malcolm X Tells Rally In Harlem Kennedy Fails to Help Negroes. New York Times, Jun 30, 1963; pg. 45, 1
  • n/a. 4 Are Indicted Here in Malcolm X Case. New York Times, Mar 11, 1965; pg. 66, 1
  • Handler, M.S. Malcolm X Seeks U.N. Negro Debate. Special to The New York Times; New York Times, Aug 13, 1964; pg. 22, 1

Bøker[endre | endre wikiteksten]

  • The Autobiography of Malcolm X (by author Alex Haley) ISBN 0-8124-1953-7
  • Acuna, Rodolfo. Occupied America: A History of Chicanos. New York: Harper & Row, 1981.
  • Alkalimat, Abdul. Malcolm X for Beginners. New York: Writers and Readers, 1990.
  • Als, Hilton. «The Women.» (a chapter on Malcolm's mother)
  • Asante, Molefi K. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero: and Other Afrocentric Essays. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1993.
  • Baldwin, James. One Day, When I Was Lost: A Scenario Based On Alex Haley's «The Autobiography Of Malcolm X». New York: Dell, 1992.
  • Breitman, George, ed. Malcolm X Speaks. New York: Merit, 1965.
  • Breitman, George. The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary. New York: Pathfinder, 1967.
  • Breitman, George and Herman Porter. The Assassination of Malcolm X. New York: Pathfinder, 1976.
  • Brisbane, Robert. Black Activism. Valley Forge, Pennsylvania: Judson Press, 1974.
  • Carson, Claybourne. Malcolm X: The FBI File. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1991.
  • Carson, Claybourne, et al. The Eyes on the Prize Civil Rights Reader. New York: Penguin, 1991.
  • Clarke, John Henrik, ed. Malcolm X; the Man and His Times. New York: Macmillan, 1969.
  • Cleage, Albert B. and George Breitman. Myths About Malcolm X: Two Views. New York: Merit, 1968.
  • Collins, Rodney P. The Seventh Child. New York: Dafina; London: Turnaround, 2002.
  • Cone, James H. Martin & Malcolm & America: A Dream or A Nightmare. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1991.
  • Davis, Thulani. Malcolm X: The Great Photographs. New York: Stewart, Tabon and Chang, 1992.
  • DeCaro, Louis A. On The Side of My People: A Religious Life of Malcolm X. New York: New York University, 1996.
  • DeCaro, Louis A. Malcolm and the Cross: The Nation of Islam, Malcolm X, and Christianity. New York: New York University, 1998.
  • Doctor, Bernard Aquina. Malcolm X for Beginners. New York: Writers and Readers, 1992.
  • Dyson, Michael Eric. Making Malcolm: The Myth and Meaning of Malcolm X. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • Essien-Udom, E. U. Black Nationalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.
  • Evanzz, Karl. The Judas Factor: The Plot to Kill Malcolm X. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1992.
  • Franklin, Robert Michael. Liberating Visions: Human Fulfillment And Social Justice In African-American Thought. Minneapolis, MN : Fortress Press, 1990.
  • Friedly, Michael. The Assassination of Malcolm X. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1992.
  • Gallen, David, ed. Malcolm A to Z: The Man and His Ideas. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1992.
  • Garrow, David. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. New York: Vintage, 1988.
  • Goldman, Peter. The Death and Life of Malcolm X. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1979.
  • Hampton, Henry and Steve Fayer. Voices of Freedom: Oral Histories from the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950s Through the 1980s. New York: Bantam, 1990.
  • Harding, Vincent, Robin D. G. Kelley and Earl Lewis. We Changed the World: African Americans, 1945-1970. The Young Oxford History of African Americans, v. 9. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
  • Hill, Robert A. Marcus Garvey: Life and Lessons. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987.
  • Jamal, Hakim A. From The Dead Level: Malcolm X and Me. New York: Random House, 1972.
  • Jenkins, Robert L. The Malcolm X Encyclopedia. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.
  • Karim, Benjamin with Peter Skutches and David Gallen. Remembering Malcolm. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1992.
  • Kly, Yussuf Naim, ed. The Black Book: The True Political Philosophy of Malcolm X (El Hajj Malik El Shabazz). Atlanta: Clarity Press, 1986.
  • Leader, Edward Roland. Understanding Malcolm X: The Controversial Changes in His Political Philosophy. New York: Vantage Press, 1993.
  • Lee, Spike with Ralph Wiley. By Any Means Necessary: The Trials and Tribulations of The Making Of Malcolm X. New York, N.Y.: Hyperion, 1992.
  • Lincoln, C. Eric. The Black Muslims in America. Boston, Beacon. 1961.
  • Lomax, Louis. When the Word is Given. Cleveland: World, 1963.
  • Maglangbayan, Shawna. Garvey, Lumumba, and Malcolm: National-Separatists. Chicago, Third World Press 1972.
  • Marable, Manning. On Malcolm X: His Message & Meaning. Westfield, N.J.: Open Media, 1992.
  • Martin, Tony. Race First. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1976.
  • Myers, Walter Dean. Malcolm X By Any Means Necessary. New York: Scholastic, 1993.
  • Perry, Bruce. Malcolm: The Life of A Man Who Changed Black America. New York: Station Hill, 1991.
  • Randall, Dudley and Margaret G. Burroughs, ed. For Malcolm; Poems on The Life and The Death of Malcolm X. Preface and Eulogy By Ossie Davis. Detroit: Broadside Press, 1967.
  • Sales, William W. From Civil Rights To Black Liberation: Malcolm X And The Organization Of Afro-American Unity. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1994.
  • Shabazz, Ilyasah. Growing Up X. New York: One World, 2002.
  • Strickland, William, et al. Malcolm X: Make It Plain. Penquin Books, 1994.
  • Terrill, Robert. Malcolm X: Inventing Radical Judgment. Michigan State University Press, 2004.
  • T'Shaka, Oba. The Political Legacy of Malcolm X. Richmond, Calif.: Pan Afrikan Publications, 1983.
  • Tuttle, William. Race Riot: Chicago, The Red Summer of 1919. New York: Atheneum, 1970.
  • Vincent, Theodore. Black Power and the Garvey Movement. San Francisco: Ramparts, 1972.
  • Wood, Joe, ed. Malcolm X: In Our Own Image. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.
  • Woodward, C. Vann. Origins of the New South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1967.