|Fødd||5. mars 1887|
Rio de Janeiro
|Yrke||komponist, koreograf, dirigent, musikkforskar, gymnaslærer, klassisk gitarist, pianist|
|Heitor Villa-Lobos på Commons|
Heitor Villa-Lobos (5. mars 1887–17. november 1959) var ein brasiliansk komponist som skreiv talrike verk for orkester, ensemble og soloinstrument. I musikken sin brukte han særskild mykje brasiliansk folkemusikk, men òg element frå impresjonisme, ekspresjonisme, klassisistisk og barokk musikk. Villa-Lobos er den best kjende søramerikanske komponisten av kunstmusikk.
Biografi[endre | endre wikiteksten]
Heitor Villa-Lobos vart født i Rio de Janeiro. Han lærte musikk av sin far. I 1899, då faren døydde, vart Villa-Lobos professjonell musikar og spela cello på cafear. Frå 1905 samla han inn brasiliansk folkemusikk frå dei noraustlege delar av Brasil.
Heitor Villa-Lobos er gavlagd i Cemitério São João Batista i Rio de Janeiro
Heitor Villa-Lobos, was born in Rio de Janeiro. He learned music from his father, who was a widely-read, highly-cultured amateur musician and a librarian. By 1899, when his father died, Villa-Lobos had turned himself into a professional musician. He earned his living as a cafe musician playing the cello.
In 1905 Villa-Lobos made the first of his trips to Brazil's north-eastern states to collect folk music. He made many such trips and Villa-Lobos spun a web of mystery around them. His own testimony of adventures with the cannibal tribes of the North-East is not always trustworthy. Afterwards, he studied at the National Institute of Music in Rio de Janeiro, though his compositional style never conformed to any academic norms. His music remained always personal and idiosyncratic. As Villa-Lobos himself said many years later: "My music is natural, like a waterfall." Also: "One foot in the academy and you are changed for the worst!"
After another ethno-musicological trip to the Amazonian interior in 1912, Villa-Lobos returned to Rio de Janeiro. There, on November 13, 1915, he turned the city on its ear with a concert of his new music, which he introduced to the city of São Paulo at the Week of Modern Art in 1922. By 1923, he had attracted enough official favour to win a government grant to study in Paris. On his return in 1930, Villa-Lobos was made director of music education in Rio de Janeiro.
Thus began Villa-Lobos' second career: pedagogue of music for his country. He designed a complete system of musical instruction for generations of Brazilians, based upon Brazil's rich musical culture and rooted in a deep and always explicit patriotism. He composed choral music for huge choirs of school children, often adaptations of folk material. His legacy in the Brazil of today, even among new generations brought up with the samba-schools or MTV, is a strong feeling of pride and love for their country.
One of his favorite singers was Brazilian soprano Bidu Sayão, with whom he had an artistic partnership for 38 years. In 1944, Villa-Lobos made a trip to the United States to conduct his works, to critical and even some popular acclaim. Important new works were commissioned by American orchestras, and he even wrote a movie score for Hollywood, for the 1945 film Green Mansions. The 1940s were a period of success on an international scale. As a composer and conductor of his own music, Villa-Lobos was lionized from Los Angeles to New York to Paris. In spite of his world travels, his home was always in Rio de Janeiro, where he died.
Viktige verk[endre | endre wikiteksten]
Villa-Lobos var svært produktiv, sjølv om mange av verka hans er arrangement over dei tidlege verka hans.
Verke nemnd i dette kappitelet er hans musikalske arv. Dette er musikk som vert framført i konsertsalar i dag og som er tilgjengeleg for sal. 
Dei mest framføret verka til Villa-Lobos er den 5te Bachianas Brasileiras, for stemme og 8 celloer, den er også framført med andre instrument. Andre populære verk er musikken for solo gitar og kor nummer 1.
Bachianas Brasileiras[endre | endre wikiteksten]
- Nr. 1 for 8 celloer (1932)
- No. 2 for kammerorkester (1933)
- No. 3 for piano og orkester (1934)
- No. 4 for piano (1930-41); orkesterert i 1942
- No. 5 for stemme og 8 celloer (1938)
- No. 6 for fløyte and basun (1938)
- No. 7 for orkester (1942)
- No. 8 for orkester (1944)
- No. 9 for kor eller orkester (1944)
Kor[endre | endre wikiteksten]
Bendita Sabedoria (1958)
Konsertar[endre | endre wikiteksten]
Symfoniar[endre | endre wikiteksten]
- Nr. 1 O Imprevisto, The Unforseen (1920)
- Nr. 2 Ascenção, The Ascension (1917)
- Nr. 3 A Guerra, The War (1919)
- Nr. 4 A Vitória, The Victory (1919)
- Nr. 5 A Paz, The Peace (1920) - lost
- Nr. 6 Montanhas do Brasil, The Mountains of Brasil (1944)
- Nr. 7 (1945)
- Nr. 8 (1950)
- Nr. 9 (1951)
- Nr. 10 Sumé Pater Patrium, Amerindia (1952)
- Nr. 11 (1955)
- Nr. 12 (1957)