Zuñi

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Zuñi
Klassifisering: Isolert språk
Bruk
Tala i: USA
Område: New Mexico, Arizona
Zuñitalande i alt: 9 686 (2006-2010)[1]
Skriftsystem: Latinsk skrift
Språkkodar
ISO 639-2: zun
ISO 639-3: zun
Det prekolumbiske zuñi-området.

Zuñi er eit urfolkspråk i USA som blir tala av zuñifolk frå vestlege New Mexico og austlege Arizona. Det har rundt 9 500 talarar, særleg rundt Zuni Pueblo i New Mexico. Til forskjell frå mange andre urfolkspråk i USA har zuñi mange unge talarar og er i utbreidd bruk som daglegspråk. Det er derfor mindre truga av språkdød.

Zuñi er eit isolert språk, men høyrer til pueblo-språkbunten og har mange lånord frå keres, hopi og o'odham.

Zuñinamnet på språket er Shiwi'ma (shiwi 'zuñi' og '-’ma', 'zuñi-måten') og namnet på talarane er a:shiwi (’a:(w)- [fleirtal] + shiwi, 'zuñi').

Skrift[endre | endre wikiteksten]

Zuñi blir skrive med latinsk skrift. Zuñialfabetet har 18 bokstavar:

A, B, D, CH, E, H, I, K, L, Ł, M, N, O, P, S, T, U, W, Y

Bokstaven Ł, ł uttrykker lyden /ɬ/ (IPA, uttalt som h og l saman). Ein bruker ti la uttrykk /ʔ/ (glottal plosiv) i midten og slutten, men ikkje først i ord.

I tillegg til ch finst det også fleire bokstavkombinasjonar.

Bokstavane c, r, g, v, z, x, q, f j er ikkje brukt i zuñi, men kan brukast til å skriva lånord.

Zuñiortografien blei i stor grad utarbeidd av Curtis Cook. Det finst også eldre ortografiar laga av språkforskarar og antropologar.

Kjelder[endre | endre wikiteksten]

Fotnotar[endre | endre wikiteksten]

  1. http//www.census.gov/hhes/socdemo/language/data/acs/SupplementaryTable1_ACSBR10-10.xls

Litteraturliste[endre | endre wikiteksten]

  • Bunzel, Ruth L. (1932a). Zuñi origin myths. In 47th annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology for the years 1929–1930 (pp. 545–609). Washington.
  • Bunzel, Ruth L. (1932b). Zuñi ritual poetry. In 47th annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology for the years 1929–1930 (pp. 611–835). Washington.
  • Bunzel, Ruth L. (1933). Zuni texts. Publications of the American Ethnological Society (No. 15). New York: G.E. Steckert & Co. ISBN 0-404-58165-X
  • Bunzel, Ruth L. (1934). Zuni. In Handbook of American Indian languages (Vol. 3, pp. 383–515). Gluckstadt: J. J. Augustin.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Cannell, Joseph R. (2007). On the Language Family Classifications of Zuni [Online] Available: www.josephcannell.yahoo.com [2007, April 15]
  • Condie, Carol. (1973). Problems of a Chomskyan analysis of Zuni transitivity. International Journal of American Linguistics, 39, 207-223.
  • Cook, Curtis D. (1975). Nucleus and margin of Zuni clause types. Linguistics, 13 5-37.
  • Cushing, Frank Hamilton. (1975). Zuni breadstuff. Indian notes and monographs (Vol. 8). AMS Press. ISBN 0-404-11835-6
  • Davis, Nancy Yaw. (2000). The Zuni enigma. Norton. ISBN 0-393-04788-1
  • Davis, Irvine. (1966). [Review of Zuni grammar by Stanley Newman]. International Journal of American Linguistics, 32, 82-84.
  • Dutton, Bertha P. (1983). American Indians of the Southwest. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
  • Foster, Michael K. (1996). Language and the culture history of North America. In I. Goddard (Ed.) Handbook of North American Indians: Languages (Vol. 17, pp. 64–110). Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Goddard, Ives. (1996). The classification of the native languages of North America. In I. Goddard (Ed.) Handbook of North American Indians: Languages (Vol. 17, pp. 290–323). Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Granberry, Julian. (1967). Zuni syntax. (Doctoral dissertation, SUNY Buffalo).
  • Hickerson, Nancy P. (1975). Two studies of color: Implications for cross-cultural comparability of semantic categories. In M. D. Kinkade, K. Hale, & O. Werner (Eds.), Linguistics and anthropology: In honor of C. F. Voegelin (pp. 317–330). The Peter De Ridder Press.
  • Hymes, Dell H. (1957). Some Penutian elements and the Penutian hypothesis. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 13, 69-87.
  • Kroeber, Albert L. (1917). Zuñi kin and clan. Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History (Vol. 18, Pt. 2). New York: The Trustees.
  • Miller, Wick R. (1996). The ethnography of speaking. In I. Goddard (Ed.) Handbook of North American Indians: Languages (Vol. 17, pp. 222–243). Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Miner, Kenneth L. (1986). Noun stripping and loose incorporation in Zuni. International Journal of American Linguistics, 52, 242-254.
  • Mithun, Marianne (Ed.). (1999). The languages of native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Newman, Stanley. (1954). A practical Zuni orthography. In J. Roberts & W. Smith (Eds.), Zuni law: A field of values (pp. 163–170). Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology (Vol. 43, No. 1). Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum, Harvard University. ISBN 0-527-01312-9
  • Newman, Stanley. (1955). Vocabulary levels: Zuni sacred and slang usage. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 11, 345-354.
  • Newman, Stanley. (1958). Zuni dictionary. Indiana University research center publications (No. 6). Bloomington: Indiana University.
  • Newman, Stanley. (1964). Comparison of Zuni and California Penutian. International Journal of American Linguistics, 30, 1-13.
  • Newman, Stanley. (1965). Zuni grammar. University of New Mexico publications in anthropology (No. 14). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico.
  • Newman, Stanley. (1967). Zuni grammar: Alternative solutions versus weaknesses. International Journal of American Linguistics, 33, 187-192.
  • Newman, Stanley. (1967). The Zuni verb 'to be'. In J. W. Verhaar (Ed.), Foundations of language, supplemental series (Vol. 1). The Humanities Press.
  • Newman, Stanley. (1996). Sketch of the Zuni language. In I. Goddard (Ed.) Handbook of North American Indians: Languages (Vol. 17, pp. 483–506). Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Nichols, Lynn. (1990). Direct quotation and switch reference in Zuni. In Proceedings of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (No. 16, pp. 90–100).
  • Nichols, Lynn. (1993). Recovering Zuni auxiliaries and their role in event classification. Harvard Studies in Linguistics, 3, 92-108.
  • Nichols, Lynn. (1998). Topics in Zuni syntax. (Doctoral dissertation, Harvard).
  • Parsons, Elsie Clews. (1927). Zuñi names and naming practices. The Journal of American Folklore, 36 (140), 171-176.
  • Stout, Carol. (1972). Zuni transitivity: A generative approach. (Doctoral dissertation, University of New Mexico).
  • Tedlock, Dennis. (1972). Finding the center: Narrative poetry of the Zuni Indians. New York: Dial.
  • Tedlock, Dennis. (1978). Coyote and Junco. In W. Bright (Ed.), Coyote stories (pp. 171–177). Chicago: The Chicago University Press.
  • Tedlock, Dennis. (1983). The spoken word and the work of interpretation. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
  • Tedlock, Dennis. (1999). Finding the center: The art of the Zuni storyteller (2nd ed.). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Walker, Willard. (1964). Reference, taxonomy and inflection in Zuni. (Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University).
  • Walker, Willard. (1966). [Review of Zuni grammar by Stanley Newman]. Language, 42 (1), 176-180.
  • Walker, Willard. (1966). Inflection and taxonomic structure in Zuni. International Journal of American Linguistics, 32 (3), 217-227.
  • Walker, Willard. (1979). Zuni semantic categories. In A. Ortiz (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Southwest (Vol. 9, pp. 509–513). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
  • Walker, Willard. (1983). What Zuni is really like. In F. Agard, G. Kelley, A. Makkai, V. B. Makkai (Eds.), Essays in honor of Charles F. Hockett (pp. 551–562). Leiden: E. J. Brill.
  • Watts, Linda. (1992). Relational terminology at Zuni Pueblo: A social semiotic case study. (Doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University).
  • Yumitani, Yukihiro. (1987). A comparative sketch of Pueblo languages: Phonology. In Kansas working papers in linguistics (No. 12, pp. 119–139). University of Kansas.

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