Flygehundar

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Flygehundar


Flygehund bilettekst=

Systematikk
Underrekkje: Megachiroptera eller Yinpterochiroptera
Klasse: Mammalia
Orden: Chiroptera
Familie: Pteropodidae
Vitskapleg namn
Pteropodidae

Flygehundar (Pteropodidae), på eng.: fruit bats, old world fruit bats, flying foxes eller megabats, er den eine av dei to gruppene av flaggermus. Den andre gruppa er småflaggermus. Pteropodidae er også ein familie.

Dei fleste (men ikkje alle) artane er større enn småflaggermus. Dei minste er 6 cm lange, dei største blir 40 cm lange og har eit vengespenn på 1,5 m. Slike kjemper kan bli over eitt kilo tunge. Dei fleste flygehundar har store auge som gjer at dei kan orientere seg i halvmørke og i holer. Flygehundar har svært god luktesans. I motsetnad til småflaggermysene, brukar ikkje flygehundane ekkolokalisering. Unntaket er grotteflygehundar (slekta Rousettus), som brukar høgfrekvente klikkelydar til å orientere seg i holer.

Flygehundar er utbreidde i tropiske og subtropiske strøk frå Afrika til Aust-Asia og Australia. Flygehundar lever av frukt og blomenektar. Ofte blir frukta most, og berre fruktsafta blir konsumert. Tennene er tilpassa til å bite gjennom harde fruktskal. Store flygehundar må lande for å ete fruktene, medan dei mindre artane er i stand til å stå stille i lufta framfor ein blom eller frukt. Mange flygehundar hjelper til med å spreie pollen og frø.

Forskjellar mellom småflaggermusene og flygehundane[endre | endre wikiteksten]

  • Småflaggermus brukar ekko til å koordinere, mens dei aller fleste flygehundar ikkje gjer det.
  • Småflaggermus manglar naglen på den andre tåa på forlemen.
  • Øyrene på småflaggermus er ikkje forma som ein lukka ring, men som eitt stort øyre separert i to delar.

Artar[endre | endre wikiteksten]

Pteropus poliocephalus, ein av flygehund-artane.
Flygehundar i Australia.
Her lev flygehundar.

Familien Pteropodidae er delt inn i sju underfamiliar med 186 total bevarte artar, representert med 44-46 slekter;

FAMILIEN PTEROPODIDAE

  • Underfamilie Nyctimeninae
    • Slekta Nyctimene - tube-nosed fruit bats
      • Broad-striped Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene aello
      • Common Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene albiventer
      • Pallas's Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene cephalotes
      • Dark Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene celaeno
      • Mountain Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene certans
      • Round-eared Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene cyclotis
      • Dragon Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene draconilla
      • Keast's Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene keasti
      • Island Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene major
      • Malaita Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene malaitensis
      • Demonic Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene masalai
      • Lesser Tube-nosed Bat, Nyctimene minutus
      • Philippine Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene rabori
      • Eastern Tube-nosed Bat, Nyctimene robinsoni
      • Nendo Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene sanctacrucis (early 20th century †)
      • Umboi Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene vizcaccia
    • Slekta Paranyctimene
      • Lesser Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Paranyctimene raptor
      • Steadfast Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Paranyctimene tenax
  • Underfamilie Cynopterinae
    • Slekta Aethalops - pygmy fruit bats
      • Borneo Fruit Bat, Aethalops aequalis
      • Pygmy Fruit Bat, Aethalops alecto
    • Slekta Alionycteris
      • Mindanao Pygmy Fruit Bat, Alionycteris paucidentata
    • Slekta Balionycteris
      • Spotted-winged Fruit Bat, Balionycteris maculata
    • Slekta Chironax
      • Black-capped Fruit Bat, Chironax melanocephalus
    • Slekta Cynopterus - dog-faced fruit bats or short-nosed fruit bats
      • Lesser Short-nosed Fruit Bat, Cynopterus brachyotis
      • Horsfield’s Fruit Bat, Cynopterus horsfieldii
      • Peters’s Fruit Bat, Cynopterus luzoniensis
      • Minute Fruit Bat, Cynopterus minutus
      • Nusatenggara Short-nosed Fruit Bat, Cynopterus nusatenggara
      • Greater Short-nosed Fruit Bat, Cynopterus sphinx
      • Indonesian Short-nosed Fruit Bat, Cynopterus titthaecheilus
    • Slekta Dyacopterus - Dayak fruit bats
      • Brooks’s Dyak Fruit Bat, Dyacopterus brooksi
      • Rickart's Dyak Fruit Bat, Dyacopterus rickarti
      • Dayak Fruit Bat, Dyacopterus spadiceus
    • Slekta Haplonycteris
      • Fischer's Pygmy Fruit Bat, Haplonycteris fischeri
    • Slekta Latidens
      • Salim Ali's Fruit Bat, Latidens salimalii
    • Slekta Megaerops
      • Tailless fruit bat|Tailless Fruit Bat, Megaerops ecaudatus
      • Javan Tailless Fruit Bat, Megaerops kusnotoi
      • Ratanaworabhan's Fruit Bat, Megaerops niphanae
      • White-collared fruit bat|White-collared Fruit Bat, Megaerops wetmorei
    • Slekta Otopteropus
      • Luzon Fruit Bat, Otopteropus cartilagonodus
    • Slekta Penthetor
      • Dusky Fruit Bat, Penthetor lucasi
    • Slekta Ptenochirus - musky fruit bats
      • Greater Musky Fruit Bat, Ptenochirus jagori
      • Lesser Musky Fruit Bat, Ptenochirus minor
    • Slekta Sphaerias
      • Blanford's Fruit Bat, Sphaerias blanfordi
    • Slekta Thoopterus
      • Swift Fruit Bat, Thoopterus nigrescens
  • Underfamilie Harpiyonycterinae
    • Slekta Aproteles
      • Bulmer's Fruit Bat, Aproteles bulmerae
    • Slekta Dobsonia - bare-backed fruit bats
      • Andersen's Bare-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia anderseni
      • Beaufort's Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia beauforti
      • Philippine bare-backed fruit bat|Philippine Bare-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia chapmani
      • Halmahera Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia crenulata
      • Biak Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia emersa
      • Sulawesi Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia exoleta
      • Solomon's Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia inermis
      • Lesser Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia minor
      • Moluccan Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia moluccensis
      • Panniet Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia pannietensis
      • Western Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia peroni
      • New Britain Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia praedatrix
      • Greenish Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia viridis
    • Slekta Harpyionycteris
      • Sulawesi Harpy Fruit Bat, Harpyionycteris celebensis
      • Harpy Fruit Bat, Harpyionycteris whiteheadi
  • Underfamilie Macroglossinae
    • Slekta Macroglossus - long-tongued fruit bats
      • Long-tongued Nectar Bat, Macroglossus minimus
      • Long-tongued Fruit Bat, Macroglossus sobrinus
    • Slekta Melonycteris
      • Fardoulis' Blossom Bat, Melonycteris fardoulisi
      • Black-bellied Fruit Bat, Melonycteris melanops
      • Woodford's Fruit Bat, Melonycteris woodfordi
    • Slekta Notopteris - long-tailed fruit bats
      • Long-tailed Fruit Bat, Notopteris macdonaldi (Fiji and Vanuatu)
      • New Caledonia Blossom Bat, Notopteris neocaledonica (New Caledonia)
    • Slekta Syconycteris - blossom bats
      • Common Blossom Bat, Syconycteris australis
      • Halmahera Blossom Bat, Syconycteris carolinae
      • Moss-forest Blossom Bat, Syconycteris hobbit
  • Underfamilie Pteropodinae
    • Slekta Acerodon
      • Sulawesi Flying Fox, Acerodon celebensis
      • Talaud Flying Fox, Acerodon humilis
      • Giant Golden-crowned Flying Fox, Acerodon jubatus
      • Palawan Fruit Bat, Acerodon leucotis
      • Sunda Flying Fox, Acerodon mackloti
    • Slekta Desmalopex
      • White-winged Flying Fox, Desmalopex leucopterus
      • Small White-winged Flying Fox, Desmalopex microleucopterus
    • Slekta Eidolon (Slekta)|Eidolon - straw-coloured fruit bats
      • Madagascan Fruit Bat, Eidolon dupreanum
      • Straw-coloured Fruit Bat, Eidolon helvum
    • Slekta Mirimiri
      • Fijian Monkey-faced Bat, Mirimiri acrodonta
    • Slekta Neopteryx
      • Small-toothed Fruit Bat, Neopteryx frosti
    • Slekta Pteralopex
      • Bougainville Monkey-faced Bat, Pteralopex anceps
      • Guadalcanal Monkey-faced Bat, Pteralopex atrata
      • Greater Monkey-faced Bat, Pteralopex flanneryi
      • Montane Monkey-faced Bat, Pteralopex pulchra
      • New Georgian Monkey-faced Bat, Pteralopex taki
    • Slekta Pteropus - flying foxes
      • P. alecto species group
        • Black Flying Fox, Pteropus alecto
      • P. caniceps species group
        • Ashy-headed Flying Fox, Pteropus caniceps
      • P. chrysoproctus species group
        • Silvery Flying Fox, Pteropus argentatus
        • Moluccan Flying Fox, Pteropus chrysoproctus
        • Makira Flying Fox, Pteropus cognatus
        • Banks Flying Fox, Pteropus fundatus
        • Solomons Flying Fox, Pteropus rayneri
        • Rennell Flying Fox, Pteropus rennelli
      • P. conspicillatus species group
        • Spectacled Flying Fox, Pteropus conspicillatus
        • Ceram Fruit Bat, Pteropus ocularis
      • P. livingstonii species group
        • Aru Flying Fox, Pteropus aruensis
        • Kei Flying Fox, Pteropus keyensis
        • Livingstone's Fruit Bat, Pteropus livingstonii
        • Black-bearded Flying Fox, Pteropus melanopogon
      • P. mariannus species group
        • Okinawa Flying Fox, Pteropus loochoensis
        • Mariana Fruit Bat, Pteropus mariannus
        • Pelew Flying Fox, Pteropus pelewensis
        • Kosrae Flying Fox, Pteropus ualanus
        • Yap Flying Fox, Pteropus yapensis
      • P. melanotus species group
        • Black-eared Flying Fox, Pteropus melanotus
      • P. molossinus species group
        • Lombok Flying Fox, Pteropus lombocensis
        • Caroline Flying Fox, Pteropus molossinus
        • Rodrigues Flying Fox, Pteropus rodricensis
      • P. neohibernicus species group
        • Great Flying Fox, Pteropus neohibernicus
      • P. niger species group
        • Aldabra Flying Fox, Pteropus aldabrensis
        • Mauritian flying fox|Mauritian Flying Fox, Pteropus niger
        • Madagascan Flying Fox, Pteropus rufus
        • Seychelles fruit bat|Seychelles Fruit Bat, Pteropus seychellensis
        • Pemba Flying Fox, Pteropus voeltzkowi
      • P. personatus species group
        • Bismark Masked Flying Fox, Pteropus capistratus
        • Masked Flying Fox, Pteropus personatus
        • Temminck's Flying Fox, Pteropus temminckii
      • P. poliocephalus species group
        • Big-eared Flying Fox, Pteropus macrotis
        • Geelvink Bay Flying Fox, Pteropus pohlei
        • Grey-headed Flying Fox, Pteropus poliocephalus
      • P. pselaphon species group
        • Chuuk Flying Fox, Pteropus insularis
        • Temotu Flying Fox, Pteropus nitendiensis
        • Large Palau Flying Fox, Pteropus pilosus (19th century †)
        • Bonin Flying Fox, Pteropus pselaphon
        • Guam Flying Fox, Pteropus tokudae (1970s †)
        • Insular Flying Fox, Pteropus tonganus
        • Vanikoro Flying Fox, Pteropus tuberculatus
        • New Caledonia Flying Fox, Pteropus vetulus
      • P. samoensis species group
        • Vanuatu Flying Fox, Pteropus anetianus
        • Samoa Flying Fox, Pteropus samoensis
      • P. scapulatus species group
        • Gilliard's Flying Fox, Pteropus gilliardorum
        • Lesser Flying Fox, Pteropus mahaganus
        • Little Red Flying Fox, Pteropus scapulatus
        • Dwarf Flying Fox, Pteropus woodfordi
      • P. subniger species group
        • Admiralty Flying Fox, Pteropus admiralitatum
        • Dusky Flying Fox, Pteropus brunneus (19th century †)
        • Ryukyu Flying Fox, Pteropus dasymallus
        • Nicobar Flying Fox, Pteropus faunulus
        • Gray Flying Fox, Pteropus griseus
        • Ontong Java Flying Fox, Pteropus howensis
        • Small Flying Fox, Pteropus hypomelanus
        • Ornate Flying Fox, Pteropus ornatus
        • Little Golden-mantled Flying Fox, Pteropus pumilus
        • Philippine Gray Flying Fox, Pteropus speciosus
        • Small Mauritian Flying Fox, Pteropus subniger (19th century †)
      • P. vampyrus species group
        • Indian Flying Fox, Pteropus giganteus
        • Andersen's Flying Fox, Pteropus intermedius
        • Lyle's Flying Fox, Pteropus lylei
        • Large Flying Fox, Pteropus vampyrus
      • incertae sedis
        • Small Samoan Flying Fox, Pteropus allenorum (19th century †)
        • Large Samoan Flying Fox, Pteropus coxi (19th century †)
    • Slekta Styloctenium
      • Mindoro stripe-faced fruit bat|Mindoro Stripe-faced Fruit Bat, Styloctenium mindorensis
      • Sulawesi Stripe-faced Fruit Bat, Styloctenium wallacei
  • Underfamilie Rousettinae
    • Slekta Eonycteris - dawn fruit bats
      • Greater Nectar Bat, Eonycteris major
      • Cave Nectar Bat, Eonycteris spelaea
      • Philippine Dawn Bat, Eonycteris robusta
    • Slekta Rousettus - rousette fruit bats
      • SubSlekta Boneia
        • Manado Fruit Bat, Rousettus (Boneia) bidens
      • SubSlekta Rousettus (subSlekta)|Rousettus
        • Geoffroy's Rousette, Rousettus amplexicaudatus
        • Sulawesi Rousette, Rousettus celebensis
        • Egyptian Rousette|Egyptian Rousette (Egyptian Fruit Bat), Rousettus aegyptiacus
        • Leschenault's Rousette, Rousettus leschenaulti
        • Linduan Rousette, Rousettus linduensis
        • Comoro Rousette, Rousettus obliviosus
        • Bare-backed Rousette, Rousettus spinalatus
      • SubSlekta Stenonycteris
        • Long-haired Rousette, Rousettus (Stenonycteris) lanosus
        • Madagascar Rousette, Rousettus (Stenonycteris) madagascariensis
  • Underfamilie Epomophorinae
    • Stammen Epomophorini
      • Slekta Epomophorus - epauletted fruit bats
        • Angolan Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus angolensis
        • Ansell's Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus anselli
        • Peters's Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus crypturus
        • Gambian Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus gambianus
        • Lesser Angolan Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus grandis
        • Ethiopian Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus labiatus
        • East African Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus minimus
        • Minor Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus minor
        • Wahlberg's Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi
      • Slekta Epomops - epauletted bats
        • Buettikofer's Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomops buettikoferi
        • Dobson's Fruit Bat, Epomops dobsoni
        • Franquet's Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomops franqueti
      • Slekta Hypsignathus
        • Hammer-headed bat|Hammer-headed Bat, Hypsignathus monstrosus
      • Slekta Micropteropus - dwarf epauletted bats
        • Hayman's Dwarf Epauletted Fruit Bat, Micropteropus intermedius
        • Peter's Dwarf Epauletted Fruit Bat, Micropteropus pusillus
      • Slekta Nanonycteris
        • Veldkamp's Dwarf Epauletted Fruit Bat, Nanonycteris veldkampii
    • Stammen Myonycterini
      • Slekta Lissonycteris
        • Angolan Rousette, Lissonycteris angolensis
      • Slekta Megaloglossus
        • Woermann's Bat, Megaloglossus woermanni
      • Slekta Myonycteris - little collared fruit bats
        • São Tomé Collared Fruit Bat, Myonycteris brachycephala
        • East African Little Collared Fruit Bat, Myonycteris relicta
        • Little Collared Fruit Bat, Myonycteris torquata
    • Stammen Plerotini
      • Slekta Plerotes
        • D'Anchieta's Fruit Bat, Plerotes anchietae
    • Stammen Scotonycterini
      • Slekta Casinycteris
        • Short-palated Fruit Bat, Casinycteris argynnis
      • Slekta Scotonycteris
        • Zenker's Fruit Bat, Scotonycteris zenkeri
        • Pohle's Fruit Bat, Scotonycteris ophiodon

Merk: Engelske tittelar er inkludert.

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