Seldsjukkarriket

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Büyük Selçuklu Devleti
دولت سلجوقیان
Dawlat-i Saljūqiān
Det store seldsjukkarriket
Rike
Ghaznavid Empire 975 - 1187 (AD).PNG
 
Buyids 970.png
 
JustinianusI.jpg
 
KakuyidMapHistoryofIran.png
1037–1194

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Plasseringa til Seldsjukkarriket
Seldsjukakrriket på sitt største i 1092,
Malik Shah I døydde
Hovudstad Nishapur
(1037–1043)
Rey
(1043–1051)
Isfahan
(1051–1118)
Hamadan, Vestleg hovudstad (1118–1194)
Merv, Austleg hovudstad (1118–1153)
Språk
Styreform Monarki
Sultan
 - 1037–1063 Toghrul I (første)
 - 1174–1194 Toghrul III (siste)[5][6]
Historie
 - Tughril danna statssystemet 1037
 - Erstatta av Khwarezmiriket[7] 1194
Areal
 - 1080 est. 3 900 000 km²
Føregjengar
Etterfølgjarar
Ghaznavid Empire 975 - 1187 (AD).PNG Ghaznavideriket
Buyids 970.png Buyid-dynastiet
JustinianusI.jpg Austromarriket
KakuyidMapHistoryofIran.png Kakuyidane
Ghuridedynastiet Ghurids1200.png
Khwarezmiriket Khwarezmian Empire 1190 - 1220 (AD).PNG
Seldsjukkarsultanatet Rûm Blank.png
Ajjubidedynastiet Blank.png
Atabegane av Aserbajdsjan Blank.png
Buridedynastiet Blank.png
Zengidedynastiet Blank.png
Danishmendane Blank.png
Artuqidedynastiet Blank.png
Saltukidane Blank.png
I dag ein del av

Seldsjukkarriket (tyrkisk Büyük Selçuklu Devleti, «Det store seldsjukkarriket»; persisk دولت سلجوقیان) var eit tyrkisk-persisk rike i mellomladeren.[8][9][10] Seldsjukkarriket kontrollerte eit enormt område som strekte seg frå Hindukush til det austlege Anatolia og frå Sentral-Asia til Persiabukta. Frå heimlandet sitt nær Aralsjøen, rykka seldsjukkane først inn i Khorasan og så inn i Persia før dei etter kvart erobra det austlege Anatolia.

Tughrul-tårnet, eit monument frå 1100-talet sør for Teheran i Iran til minne om Tughril Beg.
Kharāghān-tårna, bygd i 1053 i Iran, er gravstaden til seldsjukkarprinsane.

Seldsjukkarriket vart grunnlagd av Tughril Beg i 1037 etter innsatsen til grunnleggjaren av seldsjukk-dynastiet, Seldsjuk Bey, i byrjinga av 1000-talet. Faren til Seljuk Bey hadde ei høgare stilling i Oghuz Yabgu-staten, og han gav namnet sitt til både staten og dynastiet. Seldsjukkane samla det brotne politiske miljøet i den austlege islamske verda og spelte ei viktig rolle i det første og det andre krosstoget. Riket var kraftig persianisert[11][12][13][14] i kultur[15][16] og språk,[11][17], og seldsjukkane spelte òg ei viktig rolle i å utvikle den tyrkisk-persiske tradisjonen,[18] og eksporterte persisk kultur til Anatolia.[19] Busetjinga av tyrkiske folk i nordvestlege område av rike, av strategiske årsaker for å halde fiendtlege nabostatar unna, førte til ei aukande tyrkifisering av desse områda.[20]

Kjelder[endre | endre wikiteksten]

  1. 1,0 1,1 Savory, R. M. and Roger Savory, Introduction to Islamic civilisation, (Cambridge University Press, 1976 ), 82.
  2. Black, Edwin, Banking on Baghdad: inside Iraq's 7,000-year history of war, profit and conflict, (John Wiley and sons, 2004), 38.
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 C.E. Bosworth, "Turkish Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391: "While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkish must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time)
  4. Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Ed. Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, (Elsevier Ltd., 2009), 1110; "Oghuz Turkic is first represented by Old Anatolian Turkish which was a subordinate written medium until the end of the Seljuk rule."
  5. A New General Biographical Dictionary, Vol.2, Ed. Hugh James Rose, (London, 1853), 214.
  6. Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988), 167.
  7. Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988),159,161; "In 1194, Togrul III would succumb to the onslaught of the Khwarizmian Turks, who were destined at last to succeed the Seljuks to the empire of the Middle East."
  8. Aḥmad of Niǧde's "al-Walad al-Shafīq" and the Seljuk Past, A. C. S. Peacock, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 54, (2004), 97; With the growth of Seljuk power in Rum, a more highly developed Muslim cultural life, based on the Persianate culture of the Great Seljuk court, was able to take root in Anatolia.
  9. Meisami, Julie Scott, Persian Historiography to the End of the Twelfth Century, (Edinburgh University Press, 1999), 143; Nizam al-Mulk also attempted to organise the Saljuq administration according to the Persianate Ghaznavid model..
    • Jackson, P. (2002). «Review: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens». Journal of Islamic Studies (Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies) 13 (1): 75–76. doi:10.1093/jis/13.1.75. 
    • Bosworth, C. E. (2001). Notes on Some Turkish Names in Abu 'l-Fadl Bayhaqi's Tarikh-i Mas'udi. Oriens, Vol. 36, 2001 (2001), pp. 299-313.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
    • Hancock, I. (2006). ON ROMANI ORIGINS AND IDENTITY. The Romani Archives and Documentation Center. The University of Texas at Austin.
    • Asimov, M. S., Bosworth, C. E. (eds.). (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social and Economic Setting. Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
  10. 11,0 11,1 M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkmen heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  11. Josef W. Meri, "Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia", Routledge, 2005, p. 399
  12. Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World", Council on Foreign Relations (May 1994), p. 79
  13. Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24: "Turcoman armies coming from the East had driven the Byzantines out of much of Asia Minor and established the Persianized sultanate of the Seljuks."
  14. C.E. Bosworth, "Turkmen Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, s. 391
  15. Stephen P. Blake, "Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639-1739". Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 123: "For the Seljuks and Il-Khanids in Iran it was the rulers rather than the conquered who were "Persianized and Islamicized"
  16. O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
  17. "The Turko-Persian tradition features Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers"." Sjå Daniel Pipes: "The Event of Our Era: Former Soviet Muslim Republics Change the Middle East" in Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkemenistan and the World", Council on Foreign Relations, p. 79.
  18. Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 574.
    • Professor Peter Golden has written one of the most comprehensive books on Turkic people called An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples (Peter B. Golden. Otto Harrasowitz, 1992). pg 386