Amerikanske urfolkspråk

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Yucatec-mayaskrift i Dresden-kodeksen frå Chichen Itza på 1000-1100-talet.

Amerikanske urfolkspråk eller indianarspråk er språk som blir eller har blitt tala av amerikanske urfolk. Desse språka høyrer til fleire dusin språkfamiliar eller er isolerte språk. Forsøk på å gruppera dei i tre omfattande språkfamiliar, eskimo–aleutiske språk, na-denespråk og amerindiske språk, er stort sett blitt forkasta av forskarar.[1]

Ifølgje UNESCO er dei fleste urfolksspråka i Amerika kritisk truga, og mange er allereie utdøydde.[2] Språket med flest talarar er sørleg quechua, som har oppimot 7 millionar talarar.


Sør-Amerika[endre | endre wikiteksten]

Større språkfamiliar i Sør-Amerika. Mørke flekkar er isolerte eller kvasi-isolerte språk medan gråe flekkar viser uklassifisert eller tvilsamt klassifiserte språk.

I følgje Campbell 1997

Språkfamiliar[endre | endre wikiteksten]

Isolerte eller ikkje-kategoriserte språk[endre | endre wikiteksten]

  • Karirí (Brasil: Paraíba, Pernambuco, Ceará)
  • Kaweskar (Alacaluf, Alakaluf, Kawaskar, Kawesqar, Qawasqar, Qawashqar, Halawalip, Aksaná, Hekaine, Chono, Caucau, Kaueskar, Aksanás, Kaweskar, Kawéskar, Kakauhau, Kaukaue)
  • Koayá (Brasil: Rondônia)
  • Kukurá (Brasil: Mato Grosso)
  • Resígaro (grenseområdet mellom Colombia og Peru)
  • Sabela (Ecuador, Peru) (Auca, Huaorani)
  • Sechura (Atalan, Sec)
  • Salumã (Brasil)
  • Tairona (Colombia)
  • Tarairiú (Brasil: Rio Grande do Norte)
  • Taushiro (Peru) (Pinchi, Pinche)
  • Tequiraca (Peru) (Avishiri, Tekiraka)
  • Ticuna (Colombia, Peru, Brasil) (Magta, Tikuna, Tucuna, Tukna, Tukuna)
  • Trumai (Brasil: Xingu, Mato Grosso)
  • Tuxá (Brasil: Bahia, Pernambuco)
  • Urarina (Shimacu, Itukale)
  • Warao (Guyana, Surinam, Venezuela) (Guarao)
  • Xokó (Brasil: Alagoas, Pernambuco)
  • Xukurú (Brasil: Pernambuco, Paraíba)
  • Yaghan (Chile) (Yagan, Yahgan, Yaghan, Yamana, Yámana)
  • Yaruro (Jaruro)
  • Yuracare (Bolivia)
  • Yuri (Colombia, Brasil) (Jurí)
  • Yurumanguí (Colombia) (Yirimangi)




Mexico og Sentral-Amerika[endre | endre wikiteksten]

Språk i Mexico med over 100 000 talarar.

Språkfamiliar[endre | endre wikiteksten]

Isolerte eller ikkje-kategoriserte språk[endre | endre wikiteksten]

Nord-Amerika[endre | endre wikiteksten]

Den prekolumbiske utbreiinga av nordamerikanske språk.

Språkfamiliar[endre | endre wikiteksten]

Algiske språk[endre | endre wikiteksten]
Algiske språk
Eskimoisk-aleutiske språk[endre | endre wikiteksten]
Irokesarspråk[endre | endre wikiteksten]
Utispråk[endre | endre wikiteksten]
Utispråk
Uto-aztekiske språk[endre | endre wikiteksten]
Uto-aztekiske språk

Isolerte eller ikkje-kategoriserte språk[endre | endre wikiteksten]

  • Takelma (USA: Oregon)
  • Timucua (USA: Florida, Georgia)
  • Tonkawa (USA: Texas)
  • Tunica (USA: Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas)
  • Wappo (USA: California)
  • Washo (USA: California, Nevada)
  • Yana (USA: California)
  • Yutchi (USA: Georgia, Oklahoma)
  • Yuki (USA: California)
  • Zuñi (Shiwi) (USA: New Mexico)




Kjelder[endre | endre wikiteksten]

  • Boas, Franz. (1911). Handbook of American Indian languages (Vol. 1). Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 40. Washington: Government Printing Office (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology).
  • Boas, Franz. (1922). Handbook of American Indian languages (Vol. 2). Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 40. Washington: Government Printing Office (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology).
  • Boas, Franz. (1929). Classification of American Indian languages. Language, 5, 1–7.
  • Boas, Franz. (1933). Handbook of American Indian languages (Vol. 3). Native American legal materials collection, title 1227. Glückstadt: J.J. Augustin.
  • Bright, William. (1973). North American Indian language contact. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Linguistics in North America (part 1, pp. 713–726). Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 10). The Hauge: Mouton.
  • Bright, William. (1984). The classification of North American and Meso-American Indian languages. In W. Bright (Ed.), American Indian linguistics and literature (pp. 3–29). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Bright, William (Ed.). (1984). American Indian linguistics and literature. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-009846-6.
  • Brinton, Daniel G. (1891). The American race. New York: D. C. Hodges.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Campbell, Lyle; & Mithun, Marianne (Eds.). (1979). The languages of native America: Historical and comparative assessment. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Goddard, Ives (Ed.). (1996). Languages. Handbook of North American Indians (W. C. Sturtevant, General Ed.) (Vol. 17). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-048774-9.
  • Goddard, Ives. (1999). Native languages and language families of North America (rev. and enlarged ed. with additions and corrections). [Map]. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press (Smithsonian Institute). (Updated version of the map in Goddard 1996). ISBN 0-8032-9271-6.
  • Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (15th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. (Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com).
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46–76). London: Routledge.
  • Key, Mary R. (1979). The grouping of South American languages. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.
  • Loukotka, Čestmír. (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: Latin American Studies Center, University of California.
  • Mason, J. Alden. (1950). The languages of South America. In J. Steward (Ed.), Handbook of South American Indians (Vol. 6, pp. 157–317). Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology bulletin (No. 143). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
  • Migliazza, Ernest C.; & Campbell, Lyle. (1988). Panorama general de las lenguas indígenas en América. Historia general de América (Vol. 10). Caracas: Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia.
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Powell, John W. (1891). Indian linguistic families of America north of Mexico. Seventh annual report, Bureau of American Ethnology (pp. 1-142). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. (Reprinted in P. Holder (Ed.), 1966, Introduction to Handbook of American Indian languages by Franz Boas and Indian linguistic families of America, north of Mexico, by J. W. Powell, Lincoln: University of Nebraska).
  • Powell, John W. (1915). Linguistic families of American Indians north of Mexico by J. W. Powell, revised by members of the staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology. (Map). Bureau of American Ethnology miscellaneous publication (No. 11). Baltimore: Hoen.
  • Rowe, John H. (1954). Linguistics classification problems in South America. In M. B. Emeneau (Ed.), Papers from the symposium on American Indian linguistics (pp. 10–26). University of California publications in linguistics (Vol. 10). Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Sapir, Edward. (1929). Central and North American languages. In The encyclopædia britannica: A new survey of universal knowledge (14 ed.) (Vol. 5, pp. 138–141). London: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company, Ltd.
  • Sebeok, Thomas A. (Ed.). (1973). Linguistics in North America (parts 1 & 2). Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 10). The Hauge: Mouton. (Reprinted as Sebeok 1976).
  • Sebeok, Thomas A. (Ed.). (1976). Native languages of the Americas. New York: Plenum.
  • Sherzer, Joel. (1973). Areal linguistics in North America. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Linguistics in North America (part 2, pp. 749–795). Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 10). The Hauge: Mouton. (Reprinted in Sebeok 1976).
  • Sherzer, Joel. (1976). An areal-typological study of American Indian languages north of Mexico. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
  • Sturtevant, William C. (Ed.). (1978-present). Handbook of North American Indians (Vol. 1–20). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. (Vols. 1–3, 16, 18–20 not yet published).
  • Voegelin, Carl F.; & Voegelin, Florence M. (1965). Classification of American Indian languages. språk of the world, Native American fasc. 2, sec. 1.6). Anthropological Linguistics, 7 (7): 121–150.
  • Voegelin, Carl F.; & Voegelin, Florence M. (1977). Classification and index of the world's languages. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-00155-7.

Fotnotar[endre | endre wikiteksten]

  1. Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian languages: the historical linguistics of Native America. pg. 253. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  2. Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (15th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. (Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com)